Historical Scene Investigations

subglobal2 link | subglobal2 link | subglobal2 link | subglobal2 link | subglobal2 link | subglobal2 link | subglobal2 link
subglobal3 link | subglobal3 link | subglobal3 link | subglobal3 link | subglobal3 link | subglobal3 link | subglobal3 link
subglobal4 link | subglobal4 link | subglobal4 link | subglobal4 link | subglobal4 link | subglobal4 link | subglobal4 link
subglobal5 link | subglobal5 link | subglobal5 link | subglobal5 link | subglobal5 link | subglobal5 link | subglobal5 link
subglobal6 link | subglobal6 link | subglobal6 link | subglobal6 link | subglobal6 link | subglobal6 link | subglobal6 link
subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link | subglobal7 link
subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link | subglobal8 link

How did the American government try to assimilate Native People into American society?

The Case

Throughout the 1800s American Policy toward the Native Americans shifted back and forth
between assimilation and removal. The Native American response shifted between acceptance to
armed resistance.

This unit covers the change in government policy concerning Native Americans living in the United States
during the nineteenth century. You will be presented four points of view that showcase this controversial
topic.

1. How did federal policy towards Native Americans change between the times of Jefferson
and Jackson presidencies?
2. How did the American government try to assimilate Native People into American society?
3. What were Native American attitudes towards assimilation?
4. What forms of resistance did Native Americans use against the policy of assimilation or
removal?

Becoming a Detective:

Students will analyze various forms of primary sources that present four differing opinions
regarding Native People’s rights during the nineteenth century. Next, students will take the role
of one of the four opinions regarding the policies of assimilation and removal and then present
their findings using propaganda. Students will have five elements of propaganda to choose from to present their findings, such as:
1. Poster
2. Historical Letter
3. Comic Life
4. Digital Storytelling
5. Political Cartoon

Investigating the Evidence:  

Role Options (Including resources to support decision):

1. You are a Native American who supports resistance.

a. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0625.html#article
NY Times Report on the Battle of Little Big Horn

Worksheet to use: http://resources.jjay.cuny.edu/erc/tutoring/pdfs/7.pdf

b. Cherokee Nation vs State of Georgia

Worksheet to use: Analyzing a court case document (attached)

c. www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/tecumosages.html
Tecumseh’s Speech to the Osages (Winter 1811-1812)

Worksheet to use: Analyzing a speech document (attached)

2. You are a Native American who supports assimilation.

What were Native American attitudes towards assimilation? How did others
view this assimilation?
a. www.pbs.org/.../archives/ seven/w67i_nav.htm
Analyze the images of Navajo Tom Torlino as he came to Carlisle Indian School in 1892
and at his graduation four years later

Worksheet to use:
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/photo.html

b. Read an excerpt from an autobiography.

For many Indian students, attending government or missionary schools was a
heartbreaking experience. The government thought of these schools as a powerful
weapon of assimilation. The goal was not only to educate but to completely
transform them. That is why many Indian students rejected it. Yet, some
students chose to embrace this opportunity and use it for their own purpose.

In 1879, A Lakota Sioux by the name of Plenty Kill was enrolled in a boarding
school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. His name was changed to Luther Standing
Bear. He was subjected to the school's assimilation curriculum, suffered an assault
on his own culture but he endured all this and did well in school.
Here is an excerpt from Luther Standing Bear, Land of the Spotted Eagle (1933)

http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~nathan-wilson/bear1.pdf

c. Read the following excerpt from a paper read by Carlisle Indian School founder, in
Pennsylvania, Capt. Richard H. Pratt at an 1892 convention.

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4929/

Official Report of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction (1892), 46–
59. Reprinted in Richard H. Pratt, “The Advantages of Mingling Indians with Whites,”
Americanizing the American Indians: Writings by the “Friends of the Indian” 1880–1900
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973), 260–271.

d. Read a description from a teacher at The Pine Ridge Agency School
Wounded Knee 1890 “Leaving the Old Ways Behind” page 23

3. You are a government official who supports removal of Native American Tribes.

a. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=638
Removal and Assimilation

Worksheet to use: Analyzing Text Document (attached)

b. http://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/pdf/USIndianPolicy_LOne.pdf

Assimilation

Look at Document 5, page 27. Read the following quotes:

  • Dr. Charles Caldwell (p.27)
  • Dr. Josiah C. Nott (p.27)
  • Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, 1818 (p.28)
  • President Monroe (p.28)

Worksheet to use: How to analyze a quote (attached)

c. Our Documents Sourcebook 3 of 4
A PDF link to a lesson that has two worksheets that have students analyze Manifest Destiny Painting and Jackson's speech to Congress

d. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=25&page=transcript
Pres. Jackson's transcript of speech to Congress about Indian Removal

Worksheet to use:
Speech Analysis Worksheet (Microsoft Word Worksheet saved)

4. You are a government official who supports Native People’s assimilation into
American society.

a. http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Oakerhater/lettersTOC.html
Letters from children assimilating

Worksheet to use: http://resources.jjay.cuny.edu/erc/tutoring/pdfs/7.pdf

b. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=380
Missionary Work and Indian Policy

Worksheet to use: http://resources.jjay.cuny.edu/erc/tutoring/pdfs/7.pdf

c. http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/dawes.htm
The Dawes Act (1887)

Worksheet to use: Analyzing a court document (worksheet attached)

Other resources that may be helpful:

1. Photo Analysis Worksheet
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/photo.html

2. Map Analysis Worksheet
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/map.html

Enrichment Assignment (Optional):
Students are to create a school policy on the following topic: School Dress code
Option one: Students create and defend a stricter dress code
Option two: Students create and defend a school uniform policy

Rationale: This enrichment activity mirrors the options and struggles Native Americans faced concerning
assimilation or relocation/removal. This enrichment activity creates a relevant and rigorous assessment
for students.

Additional/Optional Resources:

1. www.ushistory.org/us/21D.asp
Native American Resistance in the Trans-Appalachian West
2. The Philosophy that Created a Nation
3. John G. Burnett, “The Cherokee Removal through the Eyes of a Private Soldier” (Dec.11,
1890)
4. Blackhawk’s Surrender Speech (1832)
5. PBS Series The American Experience: We Shall Remain
6. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/native_voices/nav3.html
History of Native American survival strategies (assimilation/armed resistance)
7. Indian Removal Act
8. http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cmamcrk4/crkdox10.html
Treaty of Fort Jackson
9. http://mapoftheunitedstates.wordpress.com/2008/04/08/trail-of-tears-map/
Map of the United States (Trail of Tears)
10. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/teachers/seminar_docs/plains_doc4.html#2
Battle of Wounded Knee from a Native American perspective
11. http://www.gilderlehrman.org/teachers/seminar_docs/plains_doc5.html
Battle of Wounded Knee from perspective of an Army interpreter
12. http://www.learner.org/courses/amerhistory/pdf/USIndianPolicy_LOne.pdf
Document 6, page 31-35
13. Tecumseh’s Speech
14. Book: Indian School Teaching the White Man’s Way by Michael L. Cooper
15. Book: Children of the Indian Boarding Schools by Holly Littlefield

Background Information (to be used as a warm-up before unit):
1. Digital Storytelling
2. Photo Manifest Destiny
3. Analyze Painting

Student Books:

1. Mountain Windsong
2. Soft Rain
3. Only the Names Remain
4. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
http://www.enotes.com/bury-heart-wounded-knee (Chapter notes)

 

 

 

About Us | Contact Us |